Dental health is an important part of people’s overall health. States are required to provide dental benefits to children covered by Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), but states choose whether to provide dental benefits for adults. See the 2010 Medicaid/CHIP Oral Health Services fact sheet (PDF 49.06 KB)for information on children’s access to dental services and opportunities and challenges to obtaining care.
Medicaid covers dental services for all child enrollees as part of a comprehensive set of benefits, referred to as the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit. Though oral screening may be part of a physical exam, it does not substitute for a dental examination performed by a dentist. A referral to a dentist is required for every child by the periodicity schedule set by a state.
Dental services for children must minimally include:
The EPSDT benefit requires that all services must be provided if determined medically necessary. States determine medical necessity. If a condition requiring treatment is discovered during a screening, the state must provide the necessary services to treat that condition, whether or not such services are included in a state’s Medicaid plan.
Each state is required to develop a dental periodicity schedule in consultation with recognized dental organizations involved in child health care. Dental services may not be limited to emergency services for children entitled to EPSDT.
Dental services must be provided at intervals that meet reasonable standards of dental practice, and at such other intervals, as indicated by medical necessity, to determine the existence of a suspected illness or condition. States must consult with recognized dental organizations involved in child health care to establish those intervals. A referral to a dentist is required for every child by each State’s periodicity schedule and at other intervals as medically necessary. The periodicity schedule for other EPSDT services may not govern the schedule for dental services.
States that provide CHIP coverage to children through a Medicaid expansion program are required to provide the EPSDT benefit. Dental coverage in separate CHIP programs is required to include coverage for dental services “necessary to prevent disease and promote oral health, restore oral structures to health and function, and treat emergency conditions.” For more information see CHIP Dental Care Goals.
States with a separate CHIP program may choose from two options for providing dental coverage: a package of dental benefits that meets the CHIP requirements, or a benchmark dental benefit package. The benchmark dental package must be substantially equal to the (1) the most popular federal employee dental plan for dependents, (2) the most popular plan selected for dependants in the state’s employee dental plan, or (3) dental coverage offered through the most popular commercial insurer in the state.
States are also required to post a listing of all participating Medicaid and CHIP dental providers and benefit packages on InsureKidsNow.gov.
States have the flexibility to determine what dental benefits are provided to adult Medicaid enrollees. While most states provide at least emergency dental services for adults, less than half of the states currently provide comprehensive dental care. There are no minimum requirements for adult dental coverage.
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is committed to improving access to dental and oral health services for children enrolled in Medicaid and CHIP. We have been making considerable progress (PDF 303.79 KB) in our efforts to ensure that low-income children have access to oral health care. From 2007 to 2011, almost half of all states (24) achieved at least a ten percentage point increase in the proportion of children enrolled in Medicaid and CHIP that received a preventive dental service during the reporting year. Yet, tooth decay remains one of the most common chronic childhood diseases.
To support continued progress, in 2010 CMS launched the Children’s Oral Health Initiative and set goals (PDF 283 KB) for improvement by FFY 2015. To achieve those goals, we have adopted a national oral health strategy (PDF 74.2 KB) through which we are working diligently with states and federal partners, as well as the dental provider community, children’s advocates and other stakeholders to improve children’s access to dental care.
To support state Medicaid and CHIP programs in achieving their improvement goals, we developed Keep Kids Smiling: Promoting Oral Health Through the Medicaid Benefit for Children and Adolescents. It provides an overview of the children’s dental benefit in Medicaid, support for evidence-based policies at the state level, and details of successful strategies with state examples.
We are also ramping up our efforts to educate consumers, health care providers and the public about positive oral health practices. Three oral health education materials, with messaging targeted to parents of young children and pregnant women, are available for download or bulk order. Also available are tips for using the materials.
We love our patients and love to help them form healthy dental life that will last them a lifetime. For more information call us today to answer all of your questions so get an appointment.